Introduction to Telephones and

Telephone Systems

(Third Edition)


A. Michael Noll

(Published 1998)

The telephone surely must be considered one of the most marvelous inventions of the communications era. Physical distance is conquered instantly, and any telephone in the world can be reached through a vast communication network that spans oceans and continents. The form of communication is both natural and unique, namely, human speech.

Telephone communication can bring joy or convey sorrow. Simply by lifting the telephone handset and dialing a few numbers, we can "reach out and touch someone," as promoted in AT&T’s television commercials a few years ago. From its earliest days, the telephone was an instant success. There is no reason to doubt that this success will be diminished now, or in the foreseeable future.

The technology of telephone communication is quite simple and straightforward, but the system that makes telephony possible and affordable is quite vast, involving a variety of technologies that have appeared over the telephone's hundred-year lifetime. It is a complex system in its size and scope, yet the basic principles of the technology is understandable with a little study.

The size and importance of telephone communication justifies the need for educated managers and laypersons to understand its workings. Furthermore, the recent restructuring of the telephone industry in the United States–an event that seems destined to repeat itself in other countries–makes it even more essential that many people understand the workings of telephone technology.

The material presented in this book is intended for people without any detailed engineering or technical background. Some of the material does assume a knowledge of basic electricity and electronics, though even these concepts are defined in the Glossary at the end of the book. The reader who desires a deeper knowledge of basic communication electronics is referred to the author's Introduction to Telecommunication Electronics (Artech House, 1987). However, most of the material should be very understandable even without any knowledge of electricity and electronics. The terms and concepts essential to understanding the material are explained in the text. If not, then the reader can usually read on without any loss of understanding of the broader concepts. The material in this book is based on a graduate-level courses taught by the author at the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Southern California.



Preface to the First Edition

Preface to the Second Edition

Preface to the Third Edition

1. Introduction • The Key to the Information Age • The Vision • Regulation • The Consumer Shapes the Future • System Elements

2. Networks: A Systems Perspective • Introduction • Transmission, Switching, and Signaling • A Network of Networks • Public and Private Networks • A Systems Perspective–The Telephone Network • A Systems Perspective–The Intelligent Network • Digital Cross-Connects • Redundancy • Networks–An Assessment

3. Station Apparatus • Introduction • The Challenge • Bell’s Invention • Transmitters • Early Ringers and Dialers • The Local Loop • Power and Ringing • Induction Coil • Anti-Sidetone Circuit • Dialers • Circuit Diagram • Technological Trends in Telephone Instruments • Instrument Variety • Station Apparatus–An Assessment

4. Analog Transmission Systems • Introduction • Transmission Media • Open Wire And Paired Cable • Loading Coils • Multiplexing • Modulation and Multiplexing • Coaxial Cable • Microwave Terrestrial Radio • Communication Satellites • Four-Wire-to-Two-Wire Conversion • Echo Elimination • Transmission Impairments

5. Digital Transmission Systems • Introduction • Digital Multiplexing • Modulation and Multiplexing • T1 Digital Carrier • Digital Microwave Radio • Optical Fiber • Transoceanic Undersea Cable • Vocoders • Summary of Transmission Capacities • Transmission–An Assessment

6. Electromechanical Switching Systems • Introduction • Evolution of Network Switching • Telephone Network Switching • Technology Evolution • Switching System • Approaches to Switching • Space-Division Switching • Blocking • Specific Switching Systems • The Step-by-Step Switching System • The Crossbar Switching System • Traffic

7. Electronic Switching Systems • Introduction • Time-Division Switching • Specific Electronic Switching Systems • Digital Switching Systems • BORSCHT • Private Branch Exchanges • Switching–An Assessment

8. Signaling • Introduction • Manual Exchange Switching • Functions • Subscriber-Loop Signaling • Interoffice Signaling • Common Channel Interoffice Signaling • Calling-Number Identification • Telephone Numbering Plan • Local-Loop Signaling Design

9. Wireless Telephone Service • Introduction • A Short History • Basic Principles • Multipaths • Implementation Differences • Multiple Access • System Operation • Advance Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) • Newer Cellular Systems • Global System for Mobile (GSM) Communication • Digital AMPS (DAMPS) • Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) • Intersystem Roaming • The Continued Search for Increased Capacity–A Personal Assessment • Satellite Mobile Communications • Cellular Telephony–An Assessment

10. Data Communication • Introduction • DiAl-Up Telephone Network • ASCII • Message and Packet Switching • Protocols and Standards • The Internet • Packet Networks • ISDN • ADSL • Local Area Data Networks • Voice versus Data • Speech and Text • Text and Image • A Picture Is Still Worth 1000 Words! • Data Communication–An Assessment

11. Services • Introduction • Lessons from Picturephone • Teleconferencing • Videotex and the Internet • Teletext • Electronic Home Banking • Audiotex • Facsimile • Telewriters • Keeping in Contact • 800 Service • Emergency Services • Television • The Broadbandwagon

12. A Short History of Telecommunication in the US, With an Emphasis on the Bell System • Introduction • The Invention of the Telephone • The Formation of the Bell System • AT&T Extends Its Power • The Bell System • The Final Judgment • Competition Comes to Telecommunication • Divestiture–The Bell Breakup of 1984 • Post-Divestiture Turmoil • The Telecommunications Act of 1986 • Merger Mania–The Turmoil Continues • An Uncertain Future

13. A Perspective on Telecommunications • Introduction • Vail’s Invention • Competition Comes to Telecommunication • The Collapse of the Bell System • Access Charges • Subsidies • The RHCs • Financial Effects of Divestiture • Research and Development • AT&T: A Status Report • The Baby Bells: A Status Report • A Final Assessment • The Last Chapter




Introduction to Telephones and Telephone Systems (Third Edition)

is available from

Artech House

(800) 225-9977

ISBN 1-58053-000-1